Electric Hubcap/Caik/Weel Motor system - Unipolar BLDC motors.
Electric Caik Outboard.
Variable Torque Converter Transmission.
Social Issues related to Energy
The ELECTRIC HUBCAP Motor System
is a new family of simple, efficient (~95% peak) axial flux 'pancake' motors plus solid state motor controllers, developed with a focus on electric transport applications but available for various purposes.
From 2008 and on into 2014 the motors have gone from "gosh it works!" innovative to highly efficient to safe and reliable. Motor kits and parts are available, as well as molds and templates to make your own from scratch.
A new development is conversion from typical bipolar to unipolar magnet operation, further improving efficiency and making the motor controllers simpler, cooler running and inherently more reliable than other BLDC (and AC frequency drive) controllers.
Bodies are molded from polypropylene-epoxy, a seemingly overlooked composite that is stronger and lighter than fiberglass.
Some rough specs for the Electric Caik/Electric Hubcap/Electric Weel
motors are: 4.8/7.2/19.2 KW, 24/36/48 V, 0-200 A (x2 motor controllers for Weel), 0-3000/-2000/-700 RPM, 9/11/28" OD, all 4-5" thick, 15/30/90 pounds. All motor sizes and styles mount the same individually made toroidal donut coils and magnets: 6/9/24 coils and 4/6/16 magnet poles.
The ELECTRIC CAIK Outboard
The 4.8 KW Electric Caik
is the smallest motor of the family. It fits in this Honda 7.5 outboard, and has taken the boat out on the ocean. So far (fall 2014), this has been the only really successful transport application of the motors. The torque of the Electric Weel
motor, the largest (inside of stator end cover at left), is immense owing to all the motive elements being at the outside of a 26" flat rotor.
The PLANETARY GEAR VARIABLE TORQUE CONVERTER TRANSMISSION
The Electric Hubcap drive motor was originally conceived as an add-on accessory wheel mounted motor to change petroleum vehicles into highly efficient plug-in electric hybrids to run on batteries recharged at home. The gas engine would be started and engaged when the batteries provide insufficient range. Since car wheels are too low an RPM and cars too heavy to allow a wheel mounted motor to develop sufficient power with direct drive, the motors must be 'geared down'. Various attempts to create a suitable magnetic or mechanical variable torque converter failed until in 2012 it was realized that using a planetary gear and allowing one element to slip under tension increases the gear reduction between the other two elements by any desired amount. This allows high torque from a stop yet low RPMs at highway speeds. Experiments showed that the mechanism only works once the gears are in motion, so either a big flyweel is needed to get the car going as the motor slows, or a clutch allows the gears to turn while the car is stopped. Assembly of such a transmission with a low RPM centrifugal clutch is underway as of fall 2014.
Sustainability and Energy Social Issues
The roadblocks in moving to friendly, sustainable energy and other sustainable systems incorporating the three 'cosmic' core values: quality of life, provision for growth, and equality, are largely social in nature, and hence social considerations are inseparable from any discussion of green energy. In the "In Passing" section of various newsletters, issues are discussed such as our antiquated and unevolving 'dead end' institutions and increasing usurpation of control of them by self-serving manipulative, unbalanced and socially insensitive personalities (AKA gangsters and banksters), the coming financial, economic and population collapse, the corrupt patent system, the need for a Department of Progress to provide for ongoing update and advancement of governmental institutions, and many other topics. Also see the 'booklet', Fundamental Principles of Democratic Government - Towards Utopian Systems of Governance".
New Chemistry Batteries Ni-Mn & Ni-Ni,
Lead-Acid Battery Renewal,
Large Ni-MH Batteries from "D" Dry Cells.
Ocean Wave Power, Nanocrystalline titanium
borosilicate transmissive glaze for solar panels, VAWT.s, Thermoelectric Generators,
Floating Hydro, Lambda Rays, Magnet Machines.
Other Green Energy Projects/Products
Low voltage Wiring for "off-grid" installations, Better LED Lighting (flat panel - globe - greenhouse),
Thermoelectric (Peltier module) refrigeration and heat pumping.
The Turquoise Battery project
aims to develop good, economical batteries with high energy density for electrical transportation use. Many novel techniques and chemistries have been explored. The two selected for potential commercial development use doped graphite current collectors and safer potassium chloride salt electrolyte with less extreme alkaline pH.
In both types, the positive electrode's nickel manganate chemistry is an improvement over traditional nickel chemistry, and the lower pH raises its voltage. The same less extreme alkaline pH also enables both new negative electrode chemistries.
In the "Ni-Mn" chemistry the lower pH and two trace additives allows a -1.5 volt manganese negative electrode to hold its charge, which has never been accomplished before. The two high voltage electrodes together give the NiMn cell the highest voltage of any water based battery cell, almost 2.5 volts, the potential cycle life is "forever", and the energy density is potentially higher than today's lithium-ion cells -- with "dirt cheap" ingredients. Presently, problems of high self discharge and low current capacity remain to be overcome.
The "NiNi" chemistry is probably equivalent to "NiMH" with perhaps slightly lower voltage, and good current capacity, but again with no deterioration foreseen over any number of charge-discharge cycles. Again the ability to use nickel in the negative electrode depends on the lower pH of the electrolyte.
Extend the life of lead-acid batteries: Battery Renewal
Sodium sulfate today!...
Quadruple your Cycle Life?
New batteries can last 3 or 4 times longer simply by adding sodium sulfate salt to the acid. "Worn out" batteries can often be given a new life by sodium sulfate renewal treatment and pulse charging.
Nickel-Metal hydride Dry Cell Car Batteries
Under the hood: Very long life, green, 20 pounds lighter and economical. Economical high energy batteries.
Order your new car battery today!...
Ocean Wave Power
The power available from ocean waves off the BC coast is immense. What eventually evolved into Turquoise Energy started with this realization and a concept for a wave powered electricity generator.
Drawings for essentially this float setup and mechanical design for generating power from waves was rated in effect "the most promising looking design" by a BC government ocean energy official in 2007. A "proof of concept" test unit was finished in early 2008. However there appeared to be no support for it, and eventually it was left in limbo and electric transport projects were started.
Much later the essence of an idea for an extremely simple wave power capture unit was found in The Renewable Energy Handbook
. This was quickly expanded into a seemingly foolproof design concept that could provide cheap, easy to build, safe ocean wave power that could (for example) replace BC's costly Peace River Site C hydro power dam project with many small, inexpensive projects costing less than half as much in total. The only components in the water are lightweight floats, heavy anchors with pulleys, and cables - the rest is housed in a tower above the high tide line. It is a shame this hasn't been developed, but there still appears to be little of the critical government support required to site and construct a test unit, for which definite foreshore access & construction permissions would be required.
Nanocrystalline titanium oxide borosilicate glaze for solar cells
Frit of this glass would be sprinkled onto the cover glaze, which is then re-fired enough to melt the frit into little pebbly lenses on the surface, which would then reflect much less light and better refract it downward into the light sensitive components.
These could potentially up the daily solar energy capture of solar cells by 25% or more by capturing more light from more oblique angles.
...Several more electricity generating topics are to be introduced here as time permits...
Other Green Energy Projects & Products
Low Voltage House Wiring Systems
Present 120/240 VAC wiring systems are useful, but renewable energy, "off-grid" systems, motor homes and boats, and the proliferation of low voltage electronic devices seems to call for standardized low voltage DC wiring systems, especially 12 VDC systems. To this end main panels, devices and circuits therefor, and standardized 12 VDC plugs and sockets are under development.
The 12 Volt plugs, sockets, wall plates for standard electrical boxes, and click-lock plugs and sockets are titled "CAT Standard
". They are C
onnectors based on standard AT
automotive fuses, with the "+"
pin turned sideways.
The old "light bulb" format is unsuitable for low voltage solid state LED lighting. From 2011 diffused globe lighting was produced (base shown), but proved uneconomical as made.
Lately cost effective flat panel LED lights have been prototyped which take up a low profile and give more even light. These are also to be produced as small greenhouse growing lights. Other LED light formats are also being investigated.
Thermoelectric (Peltier Module) Fridge & Heat Pumping
A shallow chest, heavily insulated, "apartment size" Peltier cooled refrigerator was created in summer & fall 2012, and other peltier heat pumping designs for space heating are also being tested.
Exciting advanced peltier units have been prototyped (by others) which have much higher COP.s than those currently available (up to triple). These are likely in the future to replace compressor & refrigerant based appliances. It is felt that having designs ready will expedite the shift.